Recently I had to do a run through the possible reason why the Role Centers are not working properly in the Home module.
1) make sure you have a User profile set up for your user: System Administration -> Common -> User Profiles -> choose profile -> Add User;
2) make sure you have a registered and working Enterprise Portal web site defined in System Administration -> Setup -> Enterprise Portal -> Web Sites;
also, make sure you do not have multiple entries in here, pointing to sites that do not exist;
if you do, you need to remove the invalid entries;
3) in the same form, check that the proper site is listed in the Default Enterprise Portal site and in the Website used to Display Role Centers in the client;
4) if all of the above are ok, and the Role Centers are still not visible in the Home module, then it means you are in the middle of the upgrade process, either really running or not finished properly. The code can be found in the EPGlobalParameters table, method homepageSiteURL. First thing it does is checking for the SysCheckList_Upgrade::isUpgradeMode, and if true, it return the empty string.
The fix of course is to complete the upgrade, or fix the status of the checklists.
5) if the Home is displayed and the Role Centers are also showing, but with different errors, then you need to check your EP deployment;
try to navigate to your site, and see if it comes up in the browser;
most likely, if you have errors, they can be easily fixed with a redeploy of the web components (do that using the AxUpdatePortal command: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd261467.aspx);
if you are not able to redeploy using the AxUpdatePortal, you can always use the Ax install media to reinstall the role and overwrite your existing site;
also, check the security rights are not properly defined;